Most people know about the criminal justice system
and are familiar with court cases that follow criminal prosecutions.
That is half of the justice system, but the other half that folks tend to not know about is the civil justice system. A civil case involves one or more individual or company suing one or more individuals. Generally speaking, a person who files the case is called the plaintiff, and the person being sued is called the defendant. There can be more than one plaintiff or defendant in a case. Civil lawsuits almost always involve a plaintiff trying to recover money damages against a defendant based on an allegation that the defendant violated the law or injured the plaintiff. These cases often fall into one of four categories: personal injury, civil rights, contract disputes, or business litigation. Personal injury cases often involve one of the following situations: a car accident, medical malpractice, nursing home negligence, premises liability, workers compensation, or an intentional tort.